Constitution Day By Khunmuang M.5/2
The politics of Thailand took a very significant turn on June 24, 1932, when the 700 – year-old absolute monarchy was replaced by a constitutional one in a bloodless coup. Playing the leading role in the historic change were three military leaders, Col. Phraya Phaholpol-phayuhasena, Col. Phraya Songsuradej and Col. Phraya Rithi-arkane. Civilian leaders and people in general also supported the change, due to dissatisfaction over radical measures taken by the government to save Thai economy from the decline in the aftermath of World War I. The change stemmed also from the fact that King Prajadhipok, with his far-sightedness, had a strong intention to present the constitution.
On June 27, 1932, three days after the coup, King Prajadhipok presented the first charter, the Interim Constitution. Being in enforcement for about six months, the interim charter paved the way for a big change in Thailand’s political system. It stipulated for the first time in history that sovereignty belonged to people.
On December 10, 1932, King Prajadhipok graciously presented the first full-fledged constitution. Containing main principles different from those of the interim Charter, the first constitution set up the parliamentary system under which the King, as Head of State, held no political responsibilities. Remaining in the most respectful position, unviolatable by all means, the King exercised power through the cabinet, the House of Representatives and the Court.